Takaran 2: Articles and Simple Sentences

One thing to note is that, although Takaran has gramatical gender, it is not linked to sociological gender (that is, male/female). In fact, Takaran has only two genders: Person and Object. As the names imply, person is for people and object is for inanimate objects. Think of like he/it in English. Non-human living beings, like animals, can be referred to as either gender.

Takaran uses articles to indicate gender and definiteness (a/the). Note that indefinite object nouns use no article.

 PersonObject
DefiniteHypNeßy
IndefiniteOn

Let's see some examples:

 PersonObject
DefiniteHyp nyteno (the teacher)Neßy saro (the rock)
IndefiniteOn ßi'o (a child)Atar (an apple)

Takaran doesn't use plural forms, so these phrases can also be multiple: "those teachers", "some children", "those rocks", "some apples". There is a way to indicate number, which will be in a future lesson.

Some nouns can be used as either gender. In that case, the object gender refers to the noun in general, and the person gender refers to a person assoicated with that noun.

 PersonObject
DefiniteHyp sy'asu (the scientist)Neßy sy'asu (the science)
IndefiniteOn sy'asu (a scientist)Sy'asu (science)

Making sentences

Sentence order in Takaran is subject-verb-object. Since these are simple sentences, let's leave out the object for now. We'll use the verb roka, which means "to be at (a location)". If it's used without a object, it means "to be here".

Verbs in Takaran aren't inflicted, so forming sentences is easy.

Subject (English)Subject (Takaran)Sentence (Takaran)Sentence (English)
AppleAtarAtar roka.An apple is here.
Neßy atar roka.The apple is here.
TeacherNytenoOn yteno roka.A teacher is here.
Hup nyteno roka.The teacher is here.
DogKænyKæny roka.A dog is here.
Neßy kæny roka.The dog is here.
On kæny roka.A dog is here.
Hyp kæny roka.The dog is here.

You can also use the pronouns piri (me) and yoka (you).

Subject (English)Subject (Takaran)Sentence (Takaran)Sentence (English)
MePiriPiri roka.I am here.
YouYokaYoka roka.You are here.

You don't use articles with pronouns. In fact, in Takaran, articles are a type of pronoun! You can use neßy, hyp, and on as standalone words, or use piri or yoka to modify a personal noun.

Subject (English)Subject (Takaran)Sentence (Takaran)Sentence (English)
ItNeßyNeßy roka.It is here.
SomebodyOnOn roka.Somebody is here.
ThemHypHyp roka.They are here.
Scientist (me)Piri sy'asuPiri sy'asu roka.I, a scientist, am here.
Scientist (you)Yoka sy'asuYoka sy'asu roka.You, a scientist, are here.

One of the most useful words in Takaran is pi, which is the copula: the verb that means "to be".

TakaranEnglish
Neßy pi atarThat is an apple
Hyp pi on ßi'oHe is a child

However, if you just wish to affirm the noun, then you don't need a subject.

TakaranEnglish
Piri sy'asu piI am a scientist